Emotion as I know it is rejection or acceptance, and it intensity. We might form an understanding of emotion as judgment reaching a certain energy barrier where it becomes a mode of emotion. Personally, my thoughts have become much clearer in realizing that emotion is:
1. Rejection of
2. Acceptance of
Will comes from:
1. Rejection to (will not, desire not to)
2. Acceptance to (will, desire to).
As I follow this line of thinking, I am able to observe myself accepting and rejecting "ends". I have observed myself reject stimulus "x" as to avoid state "y".
These mental forces, exist as to determine will. The more intense the rejection, the more likely that the mind will reject the end. Acceptance and rejection compete, and the one that is activated to a higher energy state or intensity becomes the actual.
I have observed myself accepting to act out of need, meaning accepting to eat, drink, sit, walk, etc. Need is "physical acceptance" of ends that come from a biological mechanism. Instead of having need, I have body accepting or rejecting ends for the body.
Personal freedom is more than being allowed to have competing intensity of rejection and acceptance of ends, without interference from "other". Influence by other, is created through the positive and negative intentions of others, and they become dominate in one's life, because of physical forces or acceptance of the person's intentions.
Consciousness, is "thought equal to sense impression." This means, in my mind either a thought will be equal to sense or not equal. When it is equal it takes on a level of certainty, and not equal, a level of uncertainty. As an example, you have a dog. This dog is taken from you and you are shown two dogs, both look like your dog. The question "is 1 your dog" will be answered yes or no, accepted or rejected based on how equal your idea "my dog" is to the existence of the actual thing(s).
Using empiricism, when a thought is equal to world the thought is "accepted as is," when not equal "rejected as is." Equality between mind world is a function of the mind, consciousness. Study is the ability of the mind to encode information, so as the make the mind equal to the world. So when some one says "are you conscious of x?" It is really to ask if you have a thought that is equal to x in your mind.
Cause and effects can also be thought using mental equality. We can set up an experiment like this, by splitting an area into section A and B, and concealing the events that take place in one section, therein concealing the causes and the effects. In either side of the area there is a recording of the cause or effect that is taking place. This then will allow the mind to think up a idea of the causes and effects and later compare it to the actual events that took place.
For example you may have multiple ideas of what the source of a light beam is. You might accept that one of them is equal to the cause. This kind of thinking, without empirical evidence is called assumption of cause/effect. When you are observing the cause/effect but you have never seen it before this is called the "encoding phase." A mental equality can't exist without activating encoded information in the mind. Direct observation causes more equality, where as assumptions cause multiple ideas for possible equalization.
No belief, instead thought as is/isn't. Belief might be thought of as a accepting or rejecting somethings existence, whether or not thought was equal or unequal to world. Belief is to conform to some idea is or isn't, where without belief one is able to think that something is or isn't. Instead of belief, I replace it with probabilistic theory.