Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Computational Neurology

A Partial Mathematical and Conceptual theory




1. Nodes (soma), connections, associations (dendrites and axons).

The below image depicts convergence and divergence, a fundamental process occuring in neurons, their nodes and their connections.




This image is hardly any different than the process that is going on in the brain. Information is stored with in the neurons, and than it is either distributed/scattered outward or inward.

Sensory information is an input, where as imagination can be both output and input, in areas of the brain.

A visual out put of a candle, mentally, can be the cause the output of the word candle. So we see there is information being output from the visual cortex into the audio cortex.

The sound association with the visual information depends on what is called word-to-visual association frequency. The association frequency strengthens a link between the two nodes, word(s) and visual(s).

Association laws:
A) Sound-visual association : λS + Vi = sSa : Frequency of sound with visual information equals strength of sound association.
B) Visual-visual association : λVstimuli = sVa : Frequency of visual input equals strength of visual association (convergence of input with output).

From input and out put we realize there are signals going out and signals coming in. Input signals is a stimuli that means (equates to) there are efferent nerves carrying signal to away from a soma.

Connection Laws:
A) (O<)n/μ = ξ-ζn : Number of outputs per node equals number of potential efferent unactive neuron connections (ζ).
B) (I>)n/μ = α-ζn : Number of inputs per node equals number of potential afferent neuron connections.

Activation law:
A) s(stimuli+ass) = pἄ Association strength equals probability of activation.

2. Reductionism
Every node may contain what is called a category. So a node of "a candle" will be a category (node), than we can use gestalt psychology to understand that every node can have other nodes, which equate to the parts of the thing. The brain has a whole (whole nodes) which can than form a connection with its parts (part nodes).

A thought experiment for this is, a candle stick. It consists of a candle holder, candle stick, and wick. This is the process as described above.

Structuralism  laws:
A) W = nP, whole equals number of parts.
B) W+(c) = nP, the wholes connections are equal to the number of parts. This being true in the part-reductionism, as a function.
C) nῥ. = P or W, properties (ῥ) can equal part or whole.

Properties : A) Phenomenal properties are, color, shape, velocity, measurement/size (angles/outlines), state (Ex: liquid, fear), texture (feels like), part of whole, language, aroma, temperature, and pleasure/pain & emotional value, need, desire, nutritional value/health value. So in this we get that each thing can be viewed with 15 different translations, and that there is a one in 15translations possible in temporal order of consciousness of properties.

T = 1:15p thought of thing equals a particular property of a whole.

Each property must have a gate-node, an inner opening of neuronetworks that allows for input of information and detects according to its gate/receptor (color receptors, size receptors).

Reducing things to their 15 particulars, having 0 or a number of different features (n), is total phenomenal-property level reductionism. When a thing is said to have 0 features, than there is another property which exists that can be added on into the system of recognition (input of stimulation, output of idea), or it factually consists of no information for the receptors.

Property reductionism: 
15:14p = Total (Ppreduction), in this we can also know that a thing is equal to its parts, or number of mental reactions, which can increase the total number of outcomes in property reductionism (structuralism).

*I do not know if this is all the properties an intelligence can detect (as in complexity which might equal a degree of the number of parts of a thing).

If we imagine, there are 15 total properties possible to extract or input into an idea of thing. When the thing is recepted, and it is lacking properties, it will be thought of as the whole thing. These properties can be have subproperties, as in the property color being red, as in the color temperature having a specific rough measurement.

There is a difference between extraction of properties and imputation of properties.

Linguistic programming, for reductionism - We understand that all things have physical properties, that can be expressed through a word, as in an adjective. The whole of the thing, can be expressed in the form of a noun, or a adjective noun conjunction (baked bread, red car, simple man).

Structuralism Node Laws:
A) nP = nμ or nC The number of properties of a thing, equates to the number of nodes, and gives us the number of neuron connections necessary (not always visible) to account for the cohesion of the whole.
B) nP(W) = -ζn number of properties of a thing, in the inactivate state.
C) λPartAss(W) = W Property association frequency (property of x, equals color y, therefore x is z) equals the probability of the thing being thought of as a whole. This equates to the idea that an extraction of a property consciously is all that is require to identify a thing at whole.

This algorithm as a thought function can have an error margin, that can be reduced with a total parts or properties reduction to equate to whole thing. This is also what is called the Induction problem, where a universal is taken to describe or be a property of all x's, when it is only true that all x's have a particular distribution of the property (as in, all people are mean, therefore x will be mean). The particular solves the problem of universal induction.

3. Functionalism

A things function is equal to the number results that can occur for it.

This brings us to a simple equation that everything can have an end, and that the number of ends it can be thought to have can take up end-nodes. Numerous end-nodes, create a sequence of events, which is what is probably going on with even the most minute actions.

Functionalism Laws:
A) E of x = nC : ends of x equal number of connections possible.
B) Frequency of e of x = pἄ
C) Thought of e of x = pἄ
D) As the number of ends is decreased in a t1 or decision-state, the ends take on a greater probability of activation.

Conscious-threshold :
The existence of being aware must exist as a threshold frequency, that can be determined through calculations. The lower frequencies, that are making things happen in the body, or to the body, can cross over the conscious-threashold. Therefore, states of the body must exist in a steady stay activation, which can be sensed when their activation is interrupted and when that interruption crosses over the conscious-threshold.

4. Neurogenesis

Since we know that ever object can be observed in its, properties, parts, and functions, we than realize that neurogenesis CAN take place when any novel property, part, of function is input. If there is no neurogenesis upon a novel end, property, or part-whoe, than there is a connections with previously existing information nodes. Similar functions, properties, and parts, only cause the activity of connections and nodes that are already in place.

5. Pain/pleasure

There most be a pain and pleasure threshold, which exists, where signals are activated to pleasure or pain centers, and the state can be stimulated into excitement by a corresponding threshold. Since each part of the body can be triggered into pain or pleasure, than there must be as many neuron clusters to account for the number of input-sources.

6. Expectation

Expectation is equate to association, meaning we expect things to be the way they are because of are frequency with the stimuli that is presented in the environment. When it comes to expecting the future, there is a greater equation for this kind of convergent thinking mechanism.

Expectation is also equate to the ends of a thing in thinking of them, and the strength or likelihood of the expectation depends on its activation.

__
Interference problem: Imagination can interfere with the reductionism of a thing, and cause the idea to take on properties or functions not contained in the observed thing. For accurate or semi-accurate internal recognition to take place, the output of non-existing properties in the input-source, must be inhibited.

Identification of Unknown -
1. A thing contains a property that has no primed gate. (No-priming)
2. There is no gate or receptor for the information. (No receptor)
3. A thing is observed and a property of it can not be receptive. (Limited field of property-sense)
4. There is no temporal cohesion between cause and effect (no temporal gates or connections).
5. A thing is observed and the end or cause of it can not be receptive. (Limited cause-sense, limited effect-sense).
6. The properties or functions of the thing are imperceptible because of size and limited observation (imperceptibility_ as in atomic makeup).
7. No cc-connections between things or ideas (no contrast-compartive connections made between two or more things).

Thursday, January 24, 2013

Truth, proposition, and reasoning

Causation and Consciousness
Everything happens in a series of events. A series is a conjunction of causes and effects. All reasons are causes and/or effects. We can think that A happens for reasons (pos. reasons), or A doesn't happen for reasons (neg. reasons). We can also make choices based on conscious reasons or purposes to do things, (sufficient reasons) or the lack of reasons/purposes (insufficient reasons). 

We are cause and effect beings, purpose driven. Every human action, every human behavior has a reason for occurring. We find these causes or effects by asking why? If we are to have a logic that is adequate for speaking about causes and effects we need to assign a distinct question to each (cause and effect). Why is the general question and we can divide it into two questions, “what for,” (effect i.e. x happens for y) “because” (cause i.e. y comes from x)”. Sentences are time differentiated by what time order they happen in. 

For: presents a reason, cause or effect ("He is gambling with his health, for he has been smoking far too long.")
So: presents a consequence ("He gambled well last night, so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.")
One can think of the reasons/purposes or lack of reasons/purposes before they make a choice.
Intentional Reasoning

Intention starts by having a desire for something. One’s desire can become the cause of an event. We can desire “for” “to” “because” and “so as to”. The event begins with the desire. A desire can be in the positive or negative, and be used as a positive or negative reason to do something. Aversion to do x is a negative reason to do x, desire to do x is a positive reason to do x. A selection of reasons takes place when the “I” “does” x “for” y. Conscious-awareness of reasons for doing something start by asking “why?” A desire for something is not the same thing as an Intentional selection. We can select desires and reasons together to form a single intentionality. 

:I desire to eat, because the food is good and I am hungry. 

The above sentence lists three reasons for doing something, namely eating. We can come up with actions “to do” (x) and desire or not desire to do them (-,+). Negative reasons are the same thing as a negative desire – aversion. Positive reasons are the same thing as positive desire – attraction. 

Positive reasons (I will because x) will strengthen the probability of the choice. Negative reasons (I won't because x) weaken the probability of the choice. 

Not doing something, makes the action not occur, and doing something makes the action occur. 

When desires correspond to reality, it is a positive-desire-correspondence (PDC) when desires don’t correspond to reality it’s a negative-desire correspondence (NDC). For desire to correspond to reality, for a PDC to exist, one must act to fulfill the desire’s ends. If I want to see the ocean, I must be in "seeing distance" of the ocean. If I don’t want to see the ocean and see it anyways this is an example of NDC. If I see the ocean and don’t want to see it so look away from the ocean, this is an example of PDC. PDC can exist when there is aversion to ends, as long as the ends are not wanted.

Truth

Truth is correspondence. A tree has positive existence the absence of the tree has negative existence. “Is” is positive, “isn't” is negative. There must be a connection between sentence reality and existent reality for there to be a correspondence.

P.statement & p.existence = (positive correspondence). Sense tree → “There is a tree.”
P. statement & N.existence = (negative correspondence). “There is a tree”. → sense no tree.
N. statement with a N. Existence = (positive correspondence). “There is no tree,” → no sense of tree.
A N. Statement with a positive existence = N. correspondence. “There is no tree,”à Tree sensed.

A statement of experience indicates
Position – Near the sofa
Movement/use – Drink, to Vegas.
Conjunction – B follows A.
Comparison – B is like x, x isn't like B
Relation – Mother, brother, friend, husband.
Quality – smooth, soft, color
Quantity – large, small, numbers.
Entity – Her, him, them.
Value – good, better, best.
Time – o'clock, seconds, hours, etc..
Questions about experience:
Where – position
What – entity, statement
When – time
Why – conjunction (past, present or present, future).
How – use/movement
Who – entities

Each can contain a positive or negative statement. Here is a sentence containing all the variables of experience: “Before going to work the mother is driving to the store to pick up a carton of white grade A eggs, instead of the brown eggs which are worse.”

A proposition is an idea seeking reality. “I want to see my father.” To actuate the proposition the intention must have positive correspondence. 

All desires seek positive correspondence but can have negative correspondence (“I don't want to see my father ever again”, neg.statement → father appears → statement has negative correspondence). 

A successful actuation of desire requires a positive correspondence. A failed actuation of a desire requires a negative correspondence.

The truth is when idea corresponds with the world. Each man is diverse in his ideas, each man is his own truth


Tuesday, January 22, 2013

In a Future

I will quickly organize, the available features of civilization that can undergo advancement or transformation. This list is not a strict predication of features of future civilizations, and doesn't elaborate on every feature to the extent which it exists in the potential world.

List of features: Computers, Health, Homes, Internal Home Structure, Clothes, Growth & Harvesting, Manufacturers, and Markets, Education, Learning Devices, Transportation, Game systems and Games, Sport and real world competitions, Television.

I start by introducing computers. Computers can be mediums for the production of all commodities, can create novel forms of education, and can strengthen human immunity, to name a few usages of computers. In all, I would say a computer can be integrated into any system, as a computer is in general a manipulating factor that can cause a system to behavior differently, even as to benefit life, and create alternative realities. Hereafter I am planning to remark on computers integration with some of the other factors of human civilizations.

At first we see computers that are very large in size, than they beget processors of smaller and smaller sizes. We can expect that this will continue to happen, till scientists affirm an absolute threshold for size that cannot be surpassed, by technicians. This capacity for processors to be microscopic, permits for average size intelligence to come in small compact designs. These computers can be put into the mind, into the immune system, even into an organ, and in doing so change how the body functions, substituting for example cellular components, and therefore how consciousness experiences and lives in reality.

Another promise for computers, along with size, is control via brain-wave interface. Brain wave interface with allow a person to communicate with any form of computer, that increases mobility, that cooks and cleans, that designs a home. In a future, we will have the ability to order our homes, made of recyclable materials, and design them as permitted by our technology. The same goes for cars. This is the message to the cooperation and out there and the faster it spread the faster the results of its effects, we no longer require the existence of countless number of manufactures, we can have preconceived demands, balanced by computers, for supplies mutable by our technology as desired by individual minds. We can decrease manufactures, and increase commodity malleability. Like manufactures can merge. When this happens, the way homes are design, the way cars are designed, will fit personal preference. No more makes and models, in this paradigm, just unique designs custom built, as our resources and technology permits. Imagine, in one future, there is the possibility of having all the designs we can fathom being controlled by brain-waves.

If that's not amusing enough, there is a future that exists with the convergence of brain-wave technology, computers, and education, that permits for the existence of learning just by thinking. We no longer require teachers, and if we have them in the future, it will be up to us. In a future, we will learn at a rapid pace. No more staying in school and going through the grade system at a slow pace, eventually such can be done away with altogether. When humans can dw information right into their brains using computers, the learning process will have sped up by millions of times its currents speed.

To get into something else more liberating, is the BWI integrated with virtual realities. What we live with now is low 2d quality imaging, on screens, and most video games don't let you design your avatar to extremes, but in a future, 3 imaging, even deep immersion, along with greater designer options, all being optimal forms of entertaining. Being able to imagine anything and have it appear on a screen and than in 3d imagining is possible, if not only conceivable.

I claim that the most entertaining forms of games are those that work in leveling, in ranks, or in achievements. Idleness is boredom's birth, progressiveness motion's birth. Immediate completion is not fun in the long run. This is a cue for all the designers out there.

There is a future where there is something built, a little something beyond cyborg, robots that have super intelligence, when they emerge there is no telling all the possibilities that will arise. Their pursuits can be replication and creation of reality. These will be fundamental ideologies that they might gear themselves with. When we compare the human needs to a robots needs, we soon realize that they don't need exactly the same things as human beings do. They need less resources to continue building themselves to stop decay, they need less energy to operate on, as possible feature, they need not wake or sleep, and can do so as desired, making space-travel all the easier.

There once was a cold war, caused by Weapons of Mass Destruction, now we face a new threat when it comes to robotics, minds of mass destruction, technologies of mass destruction. Our human progeny depends on the beneficence of the minds and technology we have and we will design, even become.

If we do not build systems to aid in our own survival, they are either indifferent or built for our own demise. We sense these kind of things in our environments, and are able to live with minimization of threats, and the existence of that which keeps the system of life it self functional, operational. What the libido, or the will to survive, is trying to do is reach a state of perfection, that is there is Platonic or universal consequence of being a true immortal. It doesn't have to be reached, but we can imagine that human beings as they are now, are far off from this achievement of eternal form with eternal individualized-self-identity.

The future is where our freedom lays.